The 12th edition of the event will take place in Călimănești-Căciulata Sovata, between 21st -23rd of September 2016, being organized by the Organization of Spa Owners in Romania (OPTBR).
The aim of the Romanian Market and Workshop for Balneary Tourism is to provide a cooperative platform for the stakeholders in the field with a view to stimulate scientific discussion and develop future strategies. Known as one of the most appreciated events on balneary tourism on national level, it brings together a large number of specialists, travel agents, tour-operators and hoteliers from Romania and other European countries.
Romania is one of Europe’s richest and most remarkable countries in terms of natural healing factors, being home to more than one third of Europe’s mineral and thermal springs. According to the research undertaken for the elaboration of the new tourism brand of Romania, balneary tourism is considered to be the third out of the first six most competitive tourism products.
The health tourism is the only form of tourism of our country based on a constant potential, very complex, practically inexhaustible. Romania is one of Europe’s richest and most remarkable countries in terms of natural healing factors. It is home to more than one third of Europe’s mineral and thermal springs.
Started by Romans and unique in Europe. Today Romania’s 70 natural spas provide relief for many medical disorders and illnesses including rheumatism, endocrine, kidney, liver, respiratory, heart, stomach and nervous diseases as well as nutrition, metabolism and gynecological disorders.
Natural factors are complemented — under attentive medical care — by physiotherapy, acupuncture, electrotherapy and medicines produced from plants.
Thanks to its significant social and economic benefits, spa tourism has become a major segment of the international tourist market. It is now a domain that concentrates major material and human resources. Science and technology play an increasingly important part in this segment, as does the provision of complex tourist and medical services of the highest quality aimed at satisfying the vital needs of people today, which are determined by changes in lifestyle and general population health.
Romania offers all the bathing minerals that can be used in the whole range of specific spa treatments.
The therapeutic value of the natural cures available in Romania has been recognised by locals since ancient times. Archaeologists have discovered numerous mineral and thermal baths from the time of the Roman Empire. Even today, at many Romanian spa resorts you will find two-thousand-year-old vestiges of ancient baths. The Thermae Herculi, nowadays called Båile Herculane, was famous throughout the
Roman Empire for the curative properties of its mineral waters.
Many of today’s spa resorts continue this ancient tradition. In the eighteenth and nineteenth century they gained European renown, and became favourite destinations for those seeking a cure or wishing to spend their holidays in a spa resort.
In 1924, the Romanian Institute of Balneology was established, the second of its kind in Europe, and researchers and physicians turned their attention to the treatment of ailments using natural cures. Spa tourism in Romanian has developed continuously, expanding greatly in the 1970s and 80s, and today there is a focus on recuperative spa services and preventative cures of the highest quality.
Spa tourism is a major component of what Romanian tourism has to offer and is aimed not only at patients with medical problems but also at people wishing to relax, regain their vitality and get into better physical, mental and spiritual shape.
Moreover Romanian doctors are known for their high standards of medical education.
Covasna is one of the spas richest in mineral waters in all Romania,with a broad range of physicochemical compositions; carbogaseous,bicarbonate, chloro-sodic, iodate-bromate, ferruginous, arsenical, ormild sulphurous mineral waters, with a total mineralisation of 3.2-22.4 g/l. Mineral waters from Covasna contain a high concentration ofvolcanic carbonic acid: around 2.5 g/l.
Another natural therapeutic factor specific to the spa is mofetta (a natural gas emission, mainly consisting of carbon dioxide), used mostly in treating cardiovascular system diseases. The mineral waters are recommended in the treatment of cardiovascular, gynaecological,locomotive, dermatological, metabolic and nervous system complaints.
Mofetta gas from Covasna, with its 80-98% carbon dioxide content, has a vasodilatory effect, reduces blood pressure, and is beneficial for the heart and peripheral circulation. Mofetta is available at the treatment facilities in the Covasna, Caprioara, and Montana Hotels. Another important therapeutic factor is the mild climate, which places low demands on the nervous and vegetative systems, and on the internal glands.
Bicarbonate, chlorate-sodic, calceous, magnesian, ferrouscarbogaseous,and hypotone spring waters, with a total mineralisationof 0.68-17.386 g/l. The springs are used for internal cures (spring no. 1,Stanescu, no. 1bis, no. 3, Mikeß, no. 4, Apor, no. 5, Rudy) or for externalcures (springs nos. 1 and 2 at the Ana hot baths).
One characteristic of all the mineral springs in Baile Tusnad is theircarbo-gaseous content. Thermal waters have also been discovered here: the borehole next to Lake Ciuca is used in the outdoor pool;mofetta, used in CO2 dry-baths. Restorative bio-climate, with stimulatoryeffects, strongly ionised air rich in resinous aerosols and negative ions.
Mineral waters, therapeutic peat mud, stimulatory mountain bioclimate.
Internal and external cures using mineral waters.
Cold or thermal mineral waters, originating from natural springs and boreholes, with various concentrations and chemical compositions:chloro-sodic, bicarbonate, lkaline, calceous, magnesian, sulphurous,bromate-iodate; restorative bio-climate.
Bicarbonate, calceous, magnesian, slightly radioactive (4.14 MmC),hypotone, mesothermal (29-33°C) mineral waters. They have a total mineralisation of 1.1- 1.4 g/l and are used in external and internal cures. The bio-climate is mild and sedative.
Mineral waters from the spa’s more than twenty springs have been chemically classified into the following groups: chloro-sodic, alkaline, carbogaseous, mildly sulphurous, bromate, iodate mineral waters (springs nos. 1 bis, 3, 6, 8, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15); alkaline, chloro/ sodic, carbo-gaseous, hypotone mineral waters (Cinget Spring); alkaline, low carbo-gaseous mineral waters (Cascada Spring); ferrous, carbogaseous mineral waters (springs no. 14 and Cherches); vitriolicferrous
mineral waters (spring no. 8 bis) and vitriolic-silicate mineral waters (spring no. 5); oligomineral mineral waters (300 Steps Spring).
The salt-mine micro-climate at Tîrgu Ocna, where patients with respiratory complaints are transported from the spa (in the salt mine, the air temperature is a constant 12°C, the air pressure 731 mmHg,and the air humidity – 60-80%).
In addition, there are no allergens,and a high concentration of sodium, calcium and chlorine aerosols;there is a higher concentration of carbon dioxide compared with that at the surface, resulting in physiological stimulation of the respiratory centre). Mild, sedative bio-climate.
The waters of lake Amara – sulphated, chlorosodic, magnesian, slightly bromurated, with a total mineralisation of 9.88g/l.Due to its high content of sulphates, the water
tastes bitter, which gave the name of the lake and the resort.
– the sapropelic mud from the lake, with a content of 66,6% water
– the well mineral waters for internal use,sulphuros,slightly sulphated,biocarbonated,sodic,magnesian,hypotonic
– energizing steppe bio-climate
Tonic bioclimate, pure air devoid of allergens, rich in UV radiations and a strong ionisation of the atmosphere, rich in negative aero ions.
Concentrated chlorinated,sodic,iodinated,brominated,athermal mineral waters,with a total mineralisation of 17.1-74.5g/l.
The Bazna salt,which can be bought in pharmacies,is extracted from the spring water.The therapeutic mud extracted from the lakes in the resort has a mixed composition with a preponderance of mineral substances brought up by well and spring water and deposited in the lakes
– sparing bio-climate,slightly exciting
-in summertime,on the shores of the salty lakes, the atmosphere is rich in iodine and sodium hydroions and aerosols that have therapeutic effects
Thermal mineral waters,of 41-49C and with a total mineralisation of about 1g/l.From the point of view of chemical composition,they are bicarbonated,sulphated,calcic,sodic,silicated,oligomineral waters.
-the therapeutic mud is used for packings or baths
-sparing bio-climate,with exciting characteristics
Thermal mineral waters with temperatures of up to 42degree,bicarbonated,sulphated,calcic,sodic and silicate,oligomineral with a mineralisation of about 1g/l
-sapropelic mud,sparing bio-climate
The mineral waters have various chemical concentrations and compositions being included in several categories : concentrated chlorosodic, iodinated,brominated mineral waters,concentrated chlorosodic,hypotonic sulphurous,slightly bicarbonate mineral waters.
-mineral sapropelic mud transported from Ocnele Mari resort, sparing bio-climate.Mild sedative bio-climate.
Chlorosodic mineral waters in the heliothermal lakes Horia,Closca,Crisan and Ocnita,with a high mineralisation of about 230g/l
-fossil sapropelic mud extracted from lakes
The mineral waters of the resort fall into the following main categories : chlorosodic,bicarbonated,slightly sulphurous mineral waters.
They have a total mineralisation of 0.5/2.6 g/l, a temperature of 38.5-53.5 degree and a radioactivity degree which amounts up to 22 MmC/l
The negative aero-ions diminish the blood sedimentation speed, increase blood and tissue colloidal stability, and body resistance to infectious diseases
Built on the site where the city of Callatis stood 2,400 years ago and where ancient stone tombs, statues of gods and other artifacts have been found, Mangalia provides treatments for afflictions related to the kidneys, digestive and nervous systems, skin and liver. Its name comes from the Byzantine word Pangalia, meaning “the most beautiful,” and it developed as a spa resort in the 1940s.
The southernmost Romanian town on the Black Sea Coast, situated at the same latitude as the French city Nisa, benefits by many natural resources: sapropelic mud from Techirghiol Lake, sea water, sulphurous waters, and a marine bioclimate, rich in saline aerosols and solar radiation, which stimulate the human organism.
While in Mangalia, you can visit the Callatis Archeological Museum, the ruins of the Callatis Fortress (7th century BC), the Syrian Basilica and the 16th century Esmahan Sultan Mosque, the oldest mosque in Romania.
Concentrated salt water from Techirghiol Lake; seawater; sapropelic mud from Techirghiol Lake; maritime bio-climate rich in saline aerosols and solar radiation, with a stimulatory effect on the body.
Eforie Nord is located on the Romanian Black Sea coast, nearby Lake Techirghiol, whose waters have long been held as cure for arthritic, rheumatic, internal and nervous system disorders.
Eforie Nord was established in 1894, when a clinic first opened here.
Later, under the patronage of King Carol I (1839 – 1914), a health resort sprang up. Besides the sea air and sun, another curative factor is the rich, black, sapropelic mud – knows locally as namol – from Techirghiol Lake.
Today, Eforie Nord treatments include mud baths as well as world-famous Gerovital and Aslavital original rejuvenation treatments.
First mentioned in a 1597 document but recorded as a resort in 1850, Sovata is located at 1,600 ft. above the sea level, in the stunning forested region of Transylvania,
Sovata features the heliothermal Ursu (Bear) lake – unique in Europe. The mineral waters here are highly prescribed in gynecological and sterility afflictions.
The nearby salt mine from Praid offers a suitable environment for the treatment of afflictions of the respiratory system, such as asthma.Curative factors include heliothermal lakes (for example, Ursu Lake),clayey, siliceous mud (Aluniß Lake), sapropelic mud (Negru Lake),and the invigorating bio-climate resulting from pure air charged with aerosols and negative ions.
The highly concentrated chlorate-sodic mineral water from the heliothermal lakes has a temperature that varies between 30 and 40°C in summer, at 1 m deep, and 40-50°C at a depth of 1.5 m; the concentration ranges from 40 to 250%. Sapropelic mud from the lakes. Mild bio-climate.
The concentrated saltwater of Techirghiol Lake; sapropelic mud extracted from Techirghiol Lake; stimulating/bracing steppe bio-climate, with maritime influences.
Maritime coastal climate. Clear skies are predominant, with more than 2,400 hours of sunshine a year. The air temperature is a little bit higher in summe time than that of other seaside resorts, but in wintertime the climate is milder; the annual average temperature is 11°C (in June it is 22-23°C, and in January -0.5°C). The annual average air pressure is 764.3 mm. Low precipitation, less then 400 mm. Sea breezes are less palpable than on the shore, but instead there is a lake breeze. The wind
speed is quite low, and the prevailing winds are north-easterly, southeasterly and westerly.
Chlorate-sodic mineral waters from resort’s the concentrated salt lakes;fossil sapropelic mud extracted from the lake; mild bio-climate.
Carbogaseous, ferruginous, low bicarbonate, calceous, magnesian,hypotone mineral waters; peat mud transported from Poiana Stampei and used for mud baths and mud packs; high purity borehole mofetta CO2; tonic, stimulatory mountain bio-climate.
Seawater, with a mineralisation of 15.5 g/l; sulphurous, mesothermal mineral water; sapropelic mud extracted and transported from Techirghiol; maritime bio-climate, rich in saline aerosols and solar radiation, with an bracing, stimulatory effect.
Romania’s resorts are recognised for their extraordinarily wide range of natural therapeutic factors
-Physical/chemical and meteorological factors
• Atmospheric composition, relative oxygen pressure, carbon-dioxide and water vapour content, ozone and aerosol concentrations, absence of chemical pollution,
• atmospheric electricity, air ionisation
-geological and geographical factors, the geomagnetic field and geological characteristics of the soil, forms of relief, altitude, forested areas, proximity to large bodies of standing water, steppe areas
-manmade factors – any negative effects are, in effect, absent
The climatic and bio-climatic areas of Romania are as follows:
Mountain climate , with a tonic -stimulatory bio -climate In the upper parts of low and medium mountainous areas (between 700 m and 2000 m), and sedative and relaxing effects in the lower parts. It stimulates neurovegetative and endocrine functions. Likewise characteristic are the biological effects of air pressure and partial
low pressure, type B ultra-violet solar radiation, and the absence of pollution. The mountain climate produced by peaks and plateaux allows
climatic cures in the form of air bathing and heliotherapy between 9 and 11 a.m. The mountain climate produced by depressions and valleys
permits climatic cures in the form of static or moderate dynamic air baths.
The hilly and plateau climate ,with its sedative rela xing bio -climate
In the extra-Carpathian hills and Transylvanian plateau, at altitudes between 200-300 metres and 700-800 metres, is milder in terms of heat and moisture, and more dynamic than in mountainous areas, with mild winters and cool summers, moderate temperatures and precipitation, and a reduced air dynamic. Aero- and heliotherapy can be applied.
The plains climate ,with its stimulatory /excitatory bio -climate ,encountered in the Romanian Plain and the Tisza Plain, places higher demands on the central nervous, neurovegetative, and endocrine systems. In summer, hot or very hot and dry, mildly dynamic aerotherapy can be applied.
The seacoast continental climate , with its marine -influenced stimulatory /excitatory bio -climate ,features higher humidity, wind speed, and sunlight, and lower
precipitation. There is moderate, predominantly positive air-ionisation,lower cutaneous stress due to the influence of breezes, and higher pulmonary stress due to humidity. In transitional periods, there are two to three relaxing months, but the total bio-climatic stress is high.
Climatic therapy is at a premium on the seacoast and is used in numerous ways: pure helio-maritime treatment or thalassotherapy in May and September/October; contrast therapy – heliotherapy and sand-baths (psamotherapy); sea-baths, anointment with cold mud; lake swimming, air-baths on the shore. In the cold season, only maritime aerosol cures and the cures available in treatment facilities are applied.
Interior therapeutic micro -climate in salt mines ,with a constant temperature of 10-14°C, high atmospheric pressure,pure air, no air currents, saline aerosols with Na, K, Ca, Mg, predominantly positive ionisation.
Therapeutic mineral waters
a. Diluted salts content (mineralisation) of more than 1g/litre
b. The presence of curative oligo-elements: bromine, iodine, iron, arsenic, lithium, strontium, boron, barium, silicon, manganese, aluminium,
c. Diluted content of gases with biological effects: CO2, H2S,
d. Source temperature – thermal waters (32-38°C), hypo- (20-31°C) and hyper-thermal (>38°C) water
e. Radioactive elements content of more than 50-100 uMache/litre
f. Scientifically acknowledged therapeutic action
Oligo-mineral or acratic (soft) waters have a mineralisation of less the 1 g/l and do not contain pharmacologically effective chemical elements or therapeutic gases.
Thermal waters – used for external cures in pools, recommended for kinetotherapy or thermo-therapy
Cold waters (below 20°C) – have exceptional diuretic effects – diuretic crenotherapy
Oligo -elements appear in small concentrations in mineral waters , in an ionised state , and include :
• Manganese – takes part in metabolic processes, such as the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides. The action of arginase has hypoglycemiant effects on the liver and acts as a lipotropic factor
• Lithium – activates the Na/K and Ca/Mg pump in cellular membranes
• Zinc – component of insulin molecules, an element in the formation of carbonic anhydrase and in the processes of protein synthesis
– present in many crenotherapy spring waters in Romania, with concentrations of up to 4 mg/l
• Copper – takes part in the synthesis of cytochrome oxidase within the mitochondria, and together with magnesium and zinc has
protective effects on the insulin and pancreatic system • Molybdenum – takes part in the metabolism of purines, in the formation of xanthine oxidase and plays a role in maintaining the elasticity of the arterial walls
• Vanadium – activates the coenzyme of vitamin B1
• Silicon – present in undissociated form in alkaline and thermal waters (between 10-120 mg/l), it contributes to arterial wall structure (arteriosclerosis)
Therapeutic mud (pelloids)
These accumulate in natural conditions and are used in medical treatments involving baths, medical packs and local procedures. They
are heterogeneous mixtures of organic and mineral substances in numerous states of aggregation and structural forms, including solid
state (macro, micro and ultra-micro-colloidal and molecular), liquid (watery solution) and gaseous (H2S, CO2, O2, H, hydrocarbons, etc.).
Mofettas are declivities where CO2, which is heavier than the air,accumulates, and where patients are stand on steps at an indicated
level for a determined length of time. The CO2 is absorbed by the tegument submerged in the mofetta gases, which combines with the
effects of the gases that are inhaled.
Natural emissions of CO2 in the volcanic area of the Eastern Carpathians reach concentrations of between 94 and 99.8%, while other, solfatara emissions also contain H2S.
In the Western Carpathians there can be found emissions which have a high nitrogen content (18-91%) as well as their CO2 content (4-81%).
Carbonic gases extracted from mineral waters is employed in mofetta treatment and industrial CO2 in so-called artificial mofetta reatment.